Sensitivity of phytoplankton to climatic factors in a large shallow lake revealed by column-integrated algal biomass from long-term satellite observations
There are some uncertainties of using chlorophyll a (Chla) concentrations in water surface to address phytoplankton dynamics, especially in large shallow lakes, because of the dramatic vertical migration of phytoplankton. The column-integrated algal biomass (CAB) can reflect the whole water column information, so it is considered as a better indicator for phytoplankton total biomass. An algal biomass index (ABI) and an empirical algorithm were proposed previously to measure algal biomass inside and outside euphotic zone from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data. A long-term CAB time series was generated in this study to clarify the temporal and spatial changes in phytoplankton and address its sensitivity to climatic factors in Lake Chaohu, a shallow eutrophic lake in China, from 2000 to 2018. Overall, the CAB for Lake Chaohu showed significant temporal and spatial dynamics. Temporally, the annual average CAB (total CBA within the whole lake) was increased at rate of 0.569 t Chla/y, ranging from 62.06 +/- 8.89 t Chla to 76.03 +/- 10.01 t Chla during the 19-year period. Seasonal and periodic variations in total CAB presented a bimodal annual cycle every year, the total CAB was highest in summer, followed by that in autumn, and it was the lowest in winter. The pixel-based CAB (total CAB of a unit water column), ranging from 112.42 to 166.85 mg Chla, was the highest in the western segment, especially its northern part, and was the lowest in the central parts of eastern and central segments. The sensitivity of CAB dynamics to climatic conditions was found to vary by region and time scale. Specifically, the change of pixel-based algal biomass was more sensitive to the temperature change on the monthly and annual scales, while wind speed impacted directly on the short-term spatial-temporal redistribution of algal biomass. High temperature and low wind speed could prompt the growth of total CAB for the whole lake, and the hydrodynamic situations affected by wind and so on determined the spatial details. It also indicated that Lake Chaohu may face more severe challenges with the future climatic warming. This study may serve as a reference to support algal bloom forecasting and early warning management for other large eutrophic lakes with similar problems.
（来源：WATER RESEARCH 卷: 207 出版年: 2021, DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2021.117786）